Biological Industries & Cytogenetics

Biological Industries operates strictly in line with its “Culture of Excellence” corporate culture and offers only comprehensively tested, rigorously proven products for use in human genetics. The range of products for cytogenetic diagnostics includes culture media for pre- and postnatal diagnostics as well as reagents for cell cycle control and karyotyping.

Cytogenetics is an important branch of human genetics. It involves the examination (usually under a light microscope) of the genetic material, i.e. the chromosomes in the cell nucleus. The number, shape and structure of the set of chromosomes is analyzed. The cell material can be of various origins (amniotic fluid cells, blood, abortion material, fibroblasts).

Chromosome analysis is used in prenatal diagnostics as well as in postnatal diagnostics. It is the dominant technique for detecting numerical chromosome aberrations such as trisomies 21, 13, 18 (Down syndrome, Pätau syndrome, Edwards syndrome), Ullrich-Turner syndrome (monosomy X), Prader-Willi syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome. There are many indications for cytogenetic testing, including infertility diagnosis, infertility diagnosis (in case of stillbirths), suspected genetic disorders, certain malformations, known chromosomal abnormalities in the family, physical and mental developmental delays in children and age indication in expectant mothers.

These indications suggest the importance of reliable and, above all, rapid results for those affected. Long waiting times and the associated uncertainty are often a great burden for those affected and their relatives. In order to be able to obtain clear analysis results in a short time, the quality of cytogenetics products must therefore be correspondingly high.

Product recommendations

Media for Prenataldiagnostics

Media for Postnataldiagnostics

Cell Cycle Control and Karyotyping

To generate a karyogram (visualization of all chromosomes in a cell in an ordered fashion), cells are cultured in a nutrient medium until metaphase is reached. The metaphase chromosomes are then isolated on a glass slide. Using image processing software, the chromosomes are ordered by size, centromere region and banding pattern. This allows changes in the number as well as the structure of the chromosomes to be detected; the so-called numerical or structural chromosome aberrations.

A typical workflow looks as follows:

Patient cells (e.g. lymphocytes, amniocytes, chorionic villus cells) are allowed to grow in a medium that stimulates cell division (phytohaemagglutinin is often used). After a defined time – the cells should be in the metaphase – cell division is interrupted by adding a mitotic inhibitor (e.g. colcemid, the poison of the autumn crocus). The cells are centrifuged, the media supernatant is discarded and the remaining cell sediment is collected in a hypotonic, 0.075 M potassium chloride solution.

The hypotonic conditions swell the cells and facilitate cell bursting when the cells are mounted on the slide. Cells in metaphase do not have a nuclear membrane, so chromosomes are released directly onto the slide. Metaphase chromosomes are highly condensed and can be readily examined by light microscopy – especially if they have been additionally stained (Giemsa-banding, FISH).

Cell Synchronization Kit for high-resolution karyograms

The Cell Synchronization Kit from Biological Industries optimizes the number of cells that are in the perfect harvest phase for karyotyping. MTX-based synchronization of individual cell cycles can significantly increase the number of prometaphase chromosomes. After G-banding, these chromosomes show excellent band resolution, which cannot be achieved in routine analysis. The kit is specifically designed for high resolution cytogenetic analysis.

The Cell Synchronization Kit contains ready-to-use solutions of methotrexate (MTX) and thymidine.

Other products for cell cycle control and karyotyping:

  • Phytohaemagglutinin M (PHA-M), Liquid (12-009-1)
  • Colcemid Solution (12-004-1)
  • Potassium Chloride Solution, 0.075M (12-005-1)
  • Sodium Citrate Solution, 0.8% (01-934-1)
  • Trypsin EDTA 10X Conc. (03-051-5)
Cell Synchronization Kitfor higher resolution of your chromosomesshop


Bio-AMF 2For rapid amniocyte growthshop
Cell Synchronization Kitfor higher resolution of your chromosomesshop
Bio-PB Karyotyping Mediafor short-term cultivation of lymphocytes from peripheral bloodshop
Dulbecco's Phosphate Buffered Saline (D-PBS)w/o Ca and Mgshop